Information Technology Laboratory / Advanced Network Technology Division

ISO/IEC 18305: 2016 - Table of Contents


Foreword

Introduction

1.   Scope

2.   Normative references

3.   Terms and definitions

4.   Abbreviated terms

5.   LTS taxonomy

5.1   Types of location sensors

5.1.1   Unimodal systems

5.1.2   Multimodal systems

5.2   Reliance on pre-existing networking / localization infrastructure

5.2.1   LTSs requiring infrastructure

5.2.2   LTSs capable of infrastructure-less operation

5.2.3   Real-time deployment of nodes facilitating localization

5.2.4   Opportunistic use of infrastructure/environment

5.3   Off-line, building-specific training

5.3.1   LTSs requiring off-line training

5.3.2   LTSs not requiring off-line training

5.4   Ultimate consumer(s) of location information

5.4.1   Introduction

5.4.2   The ELT 18

5.4.3   The tracking authority

5.4.4   Both the ELT and the tracking authority

6.   LTS privacy and security considerations

6.1   Privacy

6.2   Security

7.   T&E methodology taxonomy

7.1   System vs. component testing

7.1.1   System testing

7.1.2   Component testing

7.2   Knowledge about LTS inner-workings

7.2.1   T&E designed with full knowledge of LTS inner-workings

7.2.2   Black-box testing

7.3   Repeatability

7.3.1   Repeatable testing

7.3.2   Non-repeatable testing

7.4   Test site

7.4.1   Building-wide testing

7.4.2   Laboratory testing

7.5   Ground truth

7.5.1   Off-line surveyed test points

7.5.2   Reference LTS

8.   LTS performance metrics

8.1   Introduction

8.2   Floor detection probability

8.3   Zone detection probability

8.4   Means of various errors

8.5   Covariance matrix of the error vector

8.6   Variances of magnitudes of various errors

8.7   RMS values of various errors

8.8   Absolute mean of the error vector

8.9   Circular Error 95% (CE95) and Circular Error Probable (CEP)

8.10   Vertical Error 95% (VE95) and Vertical Error Probable (VEP)

8.11   Spherical Error 95% (SE95) and Spherical Error Probable (SEP)

8.12   Coverage

8.13   Relative accuracy

8.14   Latency

8.15   Set-up time

8.16   Optional performance metrics

8.16.1   Location-specific accuracy

8.16.2   Availability

9.   Optional performance metrics for LTS use in mission critical applications

9.1   Introduction

9.2   Susceptibility

9.3   Resilience

10.   T&E considerations and scenarios

10.1   Building types

10.1.1   Introduction

10.1.2   Wooden structure single-family house

10.1.3   Medium-size brick & concrete office building

10.1.4   Warehouse/factory

10.1.5   High-rise steel structure

10.1.6   Subterranean structure

10.2   Effects of mobility

10.2.1   Introduction

10.2.2   Stationary object/person

10.2.3   Walking

10.2.4   Running

10.2.5   Backward walking

10.2.6   Sidestepping

10.2.7   Crawling

10.3   Failure modes and vulnerabilities of location sensors

10.4   T&E scenarios

11.   T&E reporting requirements

11.1   Introduction

11.2   Test place and date

11.3   Environmental conditions

11.4   LTS product tested

11.5   Equipment used by the LTS

11.6   ELTD features

11.7   Location data format

11.8   Location update rate and system capacity

11.9   RF emission and interference issues

11.10   Set-up procedure

11.11   Building information needed by the LTS

11.12   LTS GUIs

11.12.1   ELTD GUI

11.12.2   Tracking authority GUI

11.13   Maintenance

11.14   Floor plans of test buildings

11.15   Characterization of T&E scenarios involving entities in motion

11.16   Presentation of numerical T&E results

11.17   Visualization of T&E results

Annex A (normative)   Conversions between local Cartesian and WGS 84 coordinates

A.1   Introduction

A.2   Establishing a local 3D Cartesian coordinate system and other preliminaries

A.3   Conversion from WGS 84 coordinates to local 3D Cartesian coordinates

A.4   Conversion from the local 3D Cartesian coordinates to WGS 84 coordinates

A.5   Verification and validation of MATLAB coordinate conversion codes

Annex B (informative)   Location sensors and their failure modes

B.1   Introduction

B.2   RF-based location sensors

B.2.1   General

B.2.2   RSS

B.2.3   Proximity

B.2.4   TOA

B.2.5   TDOA

B.2.6   AOA

B.2.7   Signals of opportunity

B.3   Range/pseudo-range finder

B.4   GPS/GNSS

B.5   Differential GNSS

B.6   Accelerometer

B.7   Gyroscope

B.8   Magnetometer

B.9   IMU

B.10   Pedometer

B.11   Inclinometer

B.12   Altimeter

B.13   Acoustic sensor

B.14   Imager

B.14.1   General

B.14.2   Optical

B.14.3   Infrared

B.14.4   Lidar

Bibliography